美版知乎问:为什么日本钦佩中国,但对韩国是另外的看法?

中日韩三国互为邻国,渊源颇深,有着错综复杂的历史关系在其中,曾经有档韩国的节目,问这三个国家是怎么称呼和排序中国,韩国和日本,有意思的是,中国一般称呼中日韩,日本人一般称呼日中韩,韩国在三国中都是排在最后。从称呼排名上看,这就引出了一个问题,为什么日本会对中国有更比韩国更好的看法呢?于是,在美版知乎上就有这个一个问题:为什么日本钦佩中国,但看不起韩国?我们看看网友们怎么回答的。

美版知乎问:为什么日本钦佩中国,但对韩国是另外的看法?

美版知乎问:为什么日本钦佩中国,但对韩国是另外的看法?

在美国的Mitsu Hadeishi是这么认为的:他首先表示,在美国,大家都是彼此友好的,但后面没有具体说日中的关系,而是说了日韩的关系。

I’m Japanese-American; born and raised here, and of course Asians and Asian-Americans in the US tend to stick together — we don’t have very much animosity towards other Asian groups. Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans — we all tend to be pretty friendly towards each other, even if we might tease each other about differences between our cultures.

我是日裔美国人;在这里出生和长大,当然,在美国的亚裔和亚裔美国人倾向于团结在一起——我们对其他亚洲群体没有太多的敌意。中国人、日本人和韩国人——我们都倾向于彼此非常友好,即使我们可能会互相取笑我们的文化差异。

Regarding Korea there are of course many Japanese who have actually traveled to Korea and know the truth about it: it is a hyper-modern country which has advanced in every way, and for the most part, despite all the tensions that exist between Japanese and Korean governments, Koreans generally speaking (prior to the recent moves by Abe) actually do not hate Japan or Japanese people. In fact tourism from Korea to Japan had been steadily rising, and polling of Korean attitudes towards Japan was steadily going up — until Abe destroyed everything with his ridiculous trade moves. But some Japanese simply know nothing other than rumors and misinformation circulated among right-wing sites, similar to what we have here in the US when it comes to fringe misinformation on social media.

关于韩国​,当然有很多日本人真正去过韩国并了解它的真相:它是一个超现代的国家,在各个方面都取得了进步,而且在很大程度上,尽管日本和日本之间存在着所有的紧张局势。韩国政府,韩国人一般来说(在安倍最近的举动之前)实际上并不讨厌日本或日本人。事实上,从韩国到日本的旅游业一直在稳步上升,对韩国对日本态度的民意调查也在稳步上升——直到安倍以荒谬的贸易举措摧毁了一切。但一些日本人除了在右翼网站中传播的谣言和错误信息之外一无所知,类似于我们在美国这里在社交媒体上传播错误信息时的情况。

Those of us Asian-Americans who know something about the tensions in Asia itself generally view the conflict with a mix of alarm and derision. In particular as a Japanese-American it is quite embarrassing to me to read comments from right-wing “netouyo” in Japan who write mostly ridiculous comments about Koreans based on a lack of understanding either of Korea and Koreans as they are today, as well as the history of Asia itself. Japan doesn’t teach Japanese much about what Japan did during the war, and Japanese media tend to avoid reporting very even-handedly about things either. It’s amazing that we Asian-Americans tend to be far better informed about these things than many Japanese in Japan. On the other hand, in the US here we have a similar problem with crazy conspiracy theories and misinformation spreading across social media. It seems to be quite the same in Japan itself, with many people there completely misinformed about what is going on.

我们这些对亚洲本身的紧张局势有所了解的亚裔美国人通常以警觉和嘲笑混合的眼光看待这场冲突。特别是作为一个日裔美国人,看到日本右翼“netouyo”的评论让我感到非常尴尬,他们基于对韩国和韩国人的缺乏了解而写下关于韩国人的荒谬评论,就像今天一样,以及作为亚洲本身的历史。日本并没有教给日本太多关于日本在战争期间做了什么,日本媒体也倾向于避免非常公平地报道事情。令人惊讶的是,我们亚裔美国人往往比在日本的许多日本人更了解这些事情。另一方面,在美国,我们也有类似的问题,疯狂的阴谋论和错误信息在社交媒体上传播。

In ancient times, of course, Japan looked up to China — then for a while Japan looked down on China, and now Japanese attitudes towards China may be improving as China becomes more successful. However, what many Japanese don’t know is that even longer ago Japan looked up to Korea — this is well-known historically for anyone interested in ancient history, but not understood by many Japanese (or Koreans) today. We imported a lot of culture, philosophy, even Buddhist thought from Korea, particularly from the Baekje Kingdom. Even many of our most famous temples were built by Kongo Gumi which is the oldest company in continuous operation in the world — and Kongo Gumi was originally founded by Korean builders who came to Japan from Baekje to help teach us how to build temples.

当然,在古代,日本很看重中国——然后有一段时间日本看不起中国,现在随着中国的成功,日本对中国的态度可能会有所改善。然而,许多日本人不知道的是,更早以前日本就很看重韩国——这在历史上对任何对古代历史感兴趣的人都是众所周知的,但今天许多日本(或韩国人)并不了解。我们从韩国,特别是百济王国引进了很多文化、哲学,甚至佛教思想。甚至我们许多最著名的寺庙都是由金刚组建造的,这是世界上持续运营的最古老的公司——金刚组最初是由从百济来到日本帮助我们教我们如何建造寺庙的韩国建筑商创立的。

Today, Korea is a modern country and in some ways has surpassed Japan. Rather than continually antagonizing Korea, Japan should try to bring Korea closer. The two countries would be far stronger together than they are fighting like this.

今天,韩国是一个现代化的国家,在某些方面已经超越了日本。日本不应继续与韩国对抗,而应努力拉近与韩国的距离。两个国家在一起会比他们这样战斗要强大得多。

美版知乎问:为什么日本钦佩中国,但对韩国是另外的看法?

在马来西亚的日裔Gaku Yamaguchi则进一步做了阐述

I’m a Japanese live in Malaysia. I will be able to provide you with some explanation about your question from the point of the Japanese view. I believe almost of average Japanese agree with my answer:

我是住在马来西亚的日本人。我将能够从日本的角度为你提供一些关于你的问题的解释。我相信几乎所有的日本人都同意我的回答:

Why does Japan admire China?

Japan doesn’t admire modern China so much because of some political reason. Mainland China is still the most significant communist country and not friendly because they don’t share the basic concept of value. (Democracy, Capitalism, National security, etc.)

The target of Japanese admiration is only ancient China, especially the era of the Three Kingdoms Story. (A Chinese media also pointed it out.) When Japanese natives had lived in the rudimentary environment, Chinese people built the most civilised nation at that moment and disseminated their civilisation to peripheral countries. On the other hands, modern Chinese was reflected to be very uncouth, unsophisticated people to the Japanese eyes. Nowadays, this situation has been slightly changing, but there’s still bad images of Chinese in Japan.

日本为什么崇拜中国?

由于某种政治原因,日本并不那么欣赏现代中国。

日本人仰慕的对象只是古代中国,尤其是三国故事时代。(有中国媒体也指出。) 当日本原住民生活在简陋的环境中时,中国人建立了当时最文明的民族,并将他们的文明传播到周边国家。另一方面,现代中国人在日本人眼中被认为是非常粗鲁、不老练的人。如今,这种情况有所改变,但中国人在日本的不良形象仍然存在。

Why does Japan look down on Korea?

For this question, I can replace it like “Why do Japan and Korea look down on each other?“. It would help you to understand why Japan and Korea always dispute each other.

日本为什么看不起韩国?

对于这个问题,我可以用“为什么日本和韩国互相看不起?”来代替它。它会帮助你理解为什么日本和韩国总是相互争执。

Japan

In the case of Japan, the origin is the East Asian situation around the end of the 19th century. Japan is the country which was westernised earliest in East Asia. Japan was disappointing that China and Korea refused to reform their countries. Japan was also worrying about European countries start to colonise East Asian countries. Thus, Japan tried to pull Korea apart from China and make Korea a friend state of Japan, but the attempt failed. By this experience, Japan understood that Korea is an uncontrollable country. Japanese famous thinker Yukichi Fukuzawa wrote his most renowned editorial “脱靶論” (Datsu-A-Ron). In this editorial, he claimed that Japan should stop to consider they are particular countries for Japan and associate with them on equal terms the same as other countries. Following which, Japan occupied Korea because Japan worried about other countries took Korea. It was a serious potential danger for Japan.

After world war II, Japan believed that pacifism and diplomacy based on the United Nations would help them to reconcile with Asian countries, especially China and Korea. Japan officially paid over 5 million USD and lent 3 million USD to Korea. Japan also released a bunch of official apology statements and provided Korea with exclusive cooperation. Then Japan founded additional compensation program the Asian Women’s Fund in 1995 and paid money to the victims of comfort women problem. Also, Japan agreed to “comfort women” agreement with Korea in 2015 and spent 10 million USD to Korea. However, these efforts didn’t help to improve both countries situation, as you know. As a result, Japan is fed up with Korea and became to consider that Korean is rude people who break up important promises easily or would instead just a sort of “Freeloader”.

日本

就日本而言,起源是19世纪末左右的东亚局势。日本是东亚最早西化的国家。日本对中国和韩国拒绝改革他们的国家感到失望。日本也担心欧洲国家开始殖民东亚国家。于是,日本试图将朝鲜从中国拉开,使朝鲜成为日本的友好国家,但失败了。通过这次经历,日本明白韩国是一个无法控制的国家。日本著名思想家福泽由吉他最著名的社论是《脱亜论》(Datsu-A-Ron)。在这篇社论中,他声称日本应该停止将它们视为日本的特定国家,并与其他国家一样平等地与它们交往。此后,日本因担心其他国家占领朝鲜而占领朝鲜。这对日本来说是一个严重的潜在危险。

二战后,日本认为和平主义和以联合国为基础的外交将有助于他们与亚洲国家,尤其是中国和韩国和解。日本正式向韩国支付超过500万美元并借出300万美元。日本也发布了一堆官方道歉声明并提供韩国独家合作。然后日本成立了亚洲妇女基金会的额外补偿计划1995年,为慰安妇问题的受害者支付了钱。此外,日本于2015年与韩国达成“慰安妇”协议,并向韩国支付了1000万美元。然而,如你所知,这些努力并没有帮助改善两国的情况。结果,日本厌倦了韩国,开始认为韩国人是粗鲁的人,很容易破坏重要的承诺,或者只是一种“白手起家”。

Korea

So, why Korean people look down on Japan on the contrary? I think there are some essential reasons.

First of all, Korean is one of the most stalwart supporters of Confucianism. In the point of Confucianism view, older people or elder brother must be respected. Historically, Chinese civilisation was influenced to Japan via Korea. Therefore, Korea considers that they are the elder brother of Japan. However, Japan didn’t respect Korea so much and occupied, suffered their ancestors for a long time on the contrary. In this meaning, I reckon that Korean would be having potential but strong antipathy even though they say they don’t hate Japan. It would also account for why Korea doesn’t take a hard line on China although China sometimes bullies Korea – since China is the eldest brother of East Asia.

Another important reason is that Korea prefers “justice” than law. In modern Korean history, Korean citizens have radically resolved many political issues by civil revolution. Korean people don’t hesitate to break the current law or apply a new law to past retrospectively to achieve justice. It is very famous that almost all of the successive Korean presidents were arrested, killed, or expelled after their ruling period. There is a word which explains their such attitude in Korea – “국민정서법” (National Emotional law). In this way, Korea considers that Japan is a “backward country” that doesn’t revamp their thinking and sticks to the old agreement. Japan believes that the trust relationship will be built on the pile of the accords, but the Korean way of thinking is different from it.

朝鲜

那么,为什么韩国人反而看不起日本呢?我认为有一些重要的原因。

首先,韩国人是儒家思想最坚定的支持者之一。从儒家的观点来看,必须尊重长辈或哥哥。历史上,中华文明是通过朝鲜影响日本的。因此,韩国认为他们是日本的大哥。然而,日本并没有那么尊重朝鲜并占领朝鲜,反而长期受苦于他们的祖先。在这个意义上,我认为即使韩国人说他们不讨厌日本,他们也会有潜在但强烈的反感。这也可以解释为什么尽管中国有时会欺负韩国,但韩国为什么不对中国采取强硬立场——因为中国是东亚的大哥。

另一个重要原因是韩国更喜欢“正义”而不是法律。在韩国近代史上,韩国公民通过公民革命从根本上解决了许多政治问题。为了伸张正义,韩国人会毫不犹豫地违反现行法律或追溯适用新法律。众所周知,几乎所有历届韩国总统都在执政后被逮捕、杀害或驱逐。有一句话可以解释他们在韩国的这种态度——“ 국민정서법”(国家情感法)。这样,韩国就认为日本是“落后国家”,不改思路,固守旧协议。日本认为,信任关系将建立在协议的堆砌之上,但韩国的思维方式与之不同。

This difference seems trivial but actually, having a severe impact on both countries’ relationship. Japan and Korea signed a basic treaty in 1965 and decided that Japan provide compensation. In that time, Japan thought that Japanese rule period from 1910 to 1945 was legal but no longer valid. However, Korea thought Japanese rule period was completely illegal from 1910 retrospectively. It means that money from Japan is indeed not compensation but just a token of excuse from the point of the Korean view. This problem has been sealed a long time for the sake of the Cold war environment. However, the Korean supreme court judged that Korean victims didn’t receive any legal compensation last year. It means that every Korean victim still has rights to request recompense to Japan separately in principle. In this means, Korea opened a Pandora’s box. (Indeed, some lawsuits to Japan or Korean governments have begun.)

As seen above, it is complicated and difficult for both of them to build a trust relationship again. I would instead think both countries haven’t had actual trust in each other until now. Japan won’t reach an agreement with Korea alone from now on because Korea will change a “goal”. Japan will become to try to resolve the issues in international stages like the International Court of Justice. Yukichi Fukuzawa’s “Datsu-A-Ron” has been considered just a relic of Imperialism but actually, the prophecy is about to come to reality after 100 years later. Unfortunately, I think that this situation won’t change until more critical alteration comes up in East Asia like that Communist China or North Korea dissolve.

这种差异看似微不足道,实则对两国关系产生了严重影响。1965年日韩签订基本条约,决定由日本提供赔偿。当时,日本认为1910年至1945年的日本统治时期是合法的,但不再有效。然而,韩国认为日本统治时期从1910年开始是完全非法的. 这意味着日本的钱确实不是补偿,而在韩国看来只是一种借口。为了冷战环境,这个问题已经被封存了很长时间。然而,韩国最高法院去年判决韩国受害者没有得到任何法律赔偿。这意味着每个韩国受害者原则上仍然有权单独向日本请求赔偿。就这样,韩国打开了潘多拉魔盒。(事实上​​,一些针对日本或韩国政府的诉讼已经开始。)

如上所示,双方再次建立信任关系是复杂和困难的。相反,我认为两国直到现在还没有真正信任对方。日本今后不会单独与韩国达成协议,因为韩国将改变一个“目标”。日本将尝试在国际法院等国际阶段解决问题。福泽由吉的“Datsu-A-Ron”被认为只是帝国主义的遗物,但实际上,这个预言将在 100 年后成为现实。不幸的是,我认为这种情况不会改变,除非东亚出现更严重的变化。

对于日本是怎么看待中国和韩国的,网友们有新的见解吗?欢迎留言讨论